Dr Sameera Wajahat Rabbani, Dr Ahmed Shah, Dr Hamad Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer, the pathogenesis of which is multifaceted, was the leading cause of death 50 years ago, and mortality has been reduced to two-thirds thanks to successful screening with Pap smears that detected cancer and precancerous conditions. Aim: The study was undertaken to analyze the routine screening for cervical cancer by age and to investigate various predisposing factors for cervical cancer. Place and Duration: In the Obstetric and Gynecology department of Services Hospital Lahore for two-year duration from March 2018 to March 2020. Methods: We conducted an observational study on 1,000 patients. In these patients, cervical smears and predisposing factors were examined. Results: 1000 women over 20 years of age were examined. There were 242 cases (24.2%) of dysplasia, including 133 (13.3%) mild dysplasia, 59 cases (5.9%) moderate dysplasia and 50 cases (5%) severe dysplasia. Invasive cancer was found in 29 cases (2.9%). There were 564 (56.4%) inflammatory smears and 168 (16.8%) normal smears. The maximum number of dysplasia’s and cancers was found in the age group over 40 years. These patients were from a low-income group, had no formal education, achieved their first menstrual period at the age of 13-14, were married at the age of 15-17, had three or more children, and had been married for over 30 years. Conclusion: Cervical cytology is the main stay in the prevention and early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Due to its simplicity and low cost, pulp swabs can be used for mass screening. Cervical cancer has many etiological factors that play a role in its pathogenesis. Key words: Pap smear, Cervical carcinoma, Cytology, precancerous conditions.