Dr Ayesha Shafeeque,Dr Kaneez Fatima, Dr Faiza Azam
The chronic endocrine diseases, thyroid dysfunction (TD), and diabetes mellitus (DM) are strongly associated with each other as well as high prevalence found in different populations. Diabetic patients commonly experienced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism especially patients with type-II diabetes mellitus. The present guidelines have not clearly elucidated the recommendation of monitoring of thyroid dysfunction in patients with T2DM. Excessive thyroid hormones influence the different organs and cells, have a severe impact on glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism, and inadequate glycemic control in T2DM patients. Thyrotoxicosis has contributed to the development of diabetic complications such as ketoacidosis and endothelial dysfunction, which further impart to enhance the risk of cardiovascular disease. T2DM brings a reduction in thyroid-stimulating hormone level and impaired the formation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine lead to insulin resistance. The insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia induce the proliferation of thyroid tissues to lead to developing nodular thyroid disease and enlargement of the goiter. Eventually, TD can more complicate the T2DM and diabetes worsen thyroid function. Drugs used in the therapy of diabetes have adverse effects on thyroid function.