Dr. Arsalan Shabeer, Dr. Muhammad Usama Bilal, Dr. Muhammad Umar
Introduction: The term vitamin K comes from the German language Koagulations - vitamin. Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in the presence of bile salts. Vitamin K is needed for the synthesis of coagulation factors II, VII, IX, X by the liver2. Due to the short half-life of these factors and the small amounts of vitamin K stored in the body, insufficient vitamin K intake may result in its deficiency in a short time. In the past, all neonatal bleeding disorders were grouped together under the diagnosis of neonatal hemorrhagic disease (HDN). Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin K deficiency in newborns presenting with abnormal bleeding to the neonatal unit. Methods: A total of 375 infants with bleeding were excluded from the study, while those with an obvious cause of a bleeding disorder, eg, with anticoagulation therapy, were excluded from the study. It was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine of Nishtar Hospital Multan for one-year duration from March 2019 to March 2020. Results: In an age distribution study, 45 (12%) were found to be 1-24 hours old, 185 (49.3%) were 2-7 days old and 145 (38.6%) were found. at 1-2 weeks of age, 237 (63.2%) are male and 36.8% are female. Discussed by geographical area (urban and rural). Out of a total of 375 cases, 168 (44.8%) were from cities, and 207 (55.2%) from rural areas. Incidence of abnormal clotting profiles in cases, 369 (98.4%) patients had an abnormal clotting profile, and 6 (0.01%) had a normal clotting profile. Incidence of platelet abnormalities in newborns reporting bleeding 362 (96.5%) had normal platelet counts and 13 (0.03%) had abnormal platelet counts. 352 (93.8%) had vitamin K deficiency bleeding and 23 (0.06%) had a bleeding disorder other than vitamin K deficiency bleeding. Conclusion: Vitamin K deficiency bleeding is a very important cause of bleeding in the first month of life. It is more common in men and in the countryside. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding is an avoidable cause of bleeding, therefore vitamin K prophylaxis should be mandatory after birth in all newborns. Key words: Prevalence, vitamin K deficiency bleeding.