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Dr Muhammad Usman Zafar, Dr Abdul Mannan, Dr Muhammad Tauqeer Nazeer


Objective: Anemia due to deficiency of iron is the cause of the adverse outcome of pregnancy. There are some research works on the impacts of anemia on the degenerative changes in the trophoblastic cells which are very important in the function of placenta. This present data is very vital for the elaboration of the function and complications of placenta. This research work aimed to interrogate the degenerative alterations in the trophoblastic cells linked with the anemia due to iron deficiency in the rat placenta. Methodology: In this research, we randomly divided the 49 Sprague-Dawley female rats in the group of experiments and group of healthy control. The 1st group was extracted anemic by takeout 1.5 milliliters blood per bleed on 5 alternate occasions, and we collected the placentas on 17th, 19th and 21st gestation day. We fixed the 5 cubic mm segments in solution with of 10% buffered formaldehyde; ethanol-dehydrated and set in paraffin wax for the light microscopy. We cut the thick sections of 5 microns, deparaffinized and performed their staining with the Eosin and Hematoxylin. For the inculcation of the TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), we fixed the one mm3 sections in 2.5% glutaraldehyde buffered with phosphate, post-fixed in 2% osmium tetroxide, dehydrated carried out in ethanol, cleared it in the propylene and set in the epon resin. We stained the ultrathin sections with the help of uranyl acetate and then examined the lead citrate with the utilization of the JEOL electron-microscope. Results: The giant trophoblastic cells, cyto-trophoblast and syncytio-trophoblast of the rat placentas present with anemia displayed nuclear and cytoplasmic vacuolation with the damage to the cell margins. Additionally, we found the microvilli atrophy on the surface of the cell as well as Nuclear Chromatolysis, ND (Nucleolar Degeneration) and presence of the dark bulks. Conclusion: Chronic iron deficiency anemia is the most important reason of the degeneration of the trophoblastic cells. This issue has the ability to weaken the operational integrity of the affected cells and they become the part of the process which can cause the adverse outcome of pregnancy. KEYWORDS: Anemia, Ethanol, Hematoxylin, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Uranyl Acetate, Placenta.

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