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TITLE:

DIET THAT PREVENTS HYPERTENSION

AUTHORS:

Dr.Abdullah A. Alrayss 1 , Mohammed Sulaiman Alrashed 2 , Intithar Hussain Alherz 3 , Reham Ziyad Yahya 4 , Jamil Hassan Subahi 5 , Sarah Rumayh AlRumayh 6 , Aisha Mohammed Majrashi 7 , Zahra Ali Aljamea 8 , Shrooq Hadi Mujurdy 9 , Fatimah Baqer AlAli 10 , Ali Omran Alomran 11

ABSTRACT:

Introduction: There are many diet-related illnesses, also known as (lifestyle diseases) involving obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, various inflammatory conditions as well as cancers. These diseases are caused by dietary changes as well as decreased exercise and activity. Recently, the levels of obesity in the United States adult are estimated to be more than thirty five percent (Ogden et al., 2014). Prevalence of diabetes are estimated about ten percent. Moreover, it is estimated that more than 1/3 of the population have some form of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (Lloyd-Jones et al., 2010), the rates of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is defined as a cluster of clinical conditions including impaired glucose metabolism, central obesity, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL-cholesterol, and hypertension (Alberti and and Zimmet, 1998; Alberti et al., 2006) are estimated to be more than twenty five percent. But, these diseases could be prevented by proper dietary or lifestyle modifications (Stampfer et al., 2000; World- Health-Organization, 2000; Franz et al., 2002; World-Health- OrganizationUNAIDS, 2007). So, it is highly important to highlight the ongoing research on the role of nutrition in preventing these illnesses. Nutritional epidemiology has previously focused on the relationship of specific foods and nutrients with disease outcomes (Mozaffarian et al., 2011). But, an individual’s diet is mix of a variety of foods and not individual nutrients (National Research Council, 1989), which lead to the recognition of the role of individual foods or nutrients in specific health outcomes hard to determine (Ursin et al., 1993). Recently, studying the overall dietary patterns, which takes into consideration the complexity and cumulative/synergistic effect of the foods that make up a diet, has been developed as a helpful method in studying the diet’s effects on health (Kant, 1996; Millen et al., 2001; Millen et al., 2005). Other epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of a traditional Okinawan dietary pattern to the reduction of incidence of cardiovascular disease, some cancers, and other chronic diseases (Willcox et al., 2009). Moreover, using the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern has been proven to be effective in protecting against CVDs (Salehi- Abargouei et al., 2013). So, it is not only are diet is effective for the prevention of certain conditions but also are more easily translatable into actionable changes by the general population (Krauss et al., 2000; Hulshof et al., 2001; Ammerman et al., 2002), thus potentially improving their public health-impact. Aim of work: In this review, we will discuss the recent evidence regarding the adherence to a number of different dietary patterns with the risk of certain diet-related hypertension.Methodology: We did a systematic search for diet that prevents hypertension using PubMed search engine (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and Google Scholar search engine (https://scholar.google.com). We only included full articles. Conclusions: To conclude this review, a personalized diet consisting of mixed foods that has a mixture of nutrients which could have a synergistic effect on health. We definitely need further research in the effects of specific nutrients on health outcomes, essential to further scientific knowledge relating to the health effects of individual nutrients. The recent focus on dietary patterns could be seen as a more holistic approach to the investigation of how long term consumption of certain food combinations can affect health. This “dietary pattern” approach also considered more practical in the area of public health promotion. We reviewed some evidence from different studies which show the potential benefits of 4 “healthy” dietary patterns (Mediterranean, DASH, Prudent, and Seventh Day Adventist) regarding CVD. The evidence provided in this review highlights the effectiveness of higher adherence to the four patterns in decreasing the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and CVD in comparison to decreased adherence to these diets. Key words: Diet, hypertension, prevention, management

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