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Svetlana Gazhva, Ekaterina Belousova, Elena Zueva


Prevalence of oral diseases among children is an urgent problem that poses a threat to the health of the growing population in Russia. Dental pathology among children with disabilities has specific characteristics regarding its development, prevalence and intensity of the lesion. Statistically, dental morbidity of children with disabilities is much higher than in somatically healthy. This is due to a number of factors: a slowdown in the perception rate, underdevelopment of the cognitive sphere, violation of behavioral reactions and, as a consequence, inadequate compliance with necessary hygienic procedures. The authors consider that the major etiological factor resulting in the development of diseases of oral mucosa and periodontal condition in patients with neuropsychiatric pathology is absence or poor hygienic care of the oral cavity. The aim of the study is to assess the dental status of children with disabilities and autism spectrum disorders aged 3 – 8 years old. To determine this status, the method of defining and calculating indices reflecting the state of oral tissues was employed. The following indexes were used in the study: Fedorov-Volodkina hygienic index; simplified index of oral hygiene (OHI-S/GAMES-Y),; papillary-marginal-alveolar index (PMA); Index of tooth decay kp, KPU+kp. Dental examination revealed a high prevalence of dental diseases in children with ASD and cerebral palsy; in particular, multiple lesions of hard tissues of the teeth, periodontal inflammation were identified. The findings of the study showed that caries in children with limited abilities is mainly due to their low motivation to develop a habit of individual manual teeth brushing ritual. Key words: Dental status, autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, dental caries, gingivitis, poor oral hygiene.


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