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Habib ur Rehman*, Mohammad Din, Niamatullah Kakar and Ahmad Khan Tareen


Microelements such as selenium and cobalt and macroelement as magnesium are indispensable nutrients for preserving major physiological functions, improving reproductive characteristics and overall health condition. By their adequate use, the different diseases are prevented, while at the same time they have a positive effect on fertility and resistance. Insufficient quantities of these micro and macro elements, inadequate the absorption and interaction with other elements, lead to the impairment of the immune response due to metabolic and oxidative stress. In the recent study, the better biological availability of micro and macro elements improve the quality of products and optimize the digestive quantities of food in animals with maximizing the immune function and protection of tissues. For example Selenium (Se) is a micro nutrient essential in very small quantities. The requirement for selenium by ruminants is approximately 0.1 to 0.3 ppm. The metabolic role of selenium is as a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. This enzyme is found inside the body cells and is responsible for detoxifying peroxides. Selenium is also required for the normal development of the pancreas. The initial deficiency of dietary selenium in cattle is recognized as the cause of "White Muscle Disease" in calves, damaging to cell membrane and tissue membranes. The deficiencies in dietary selenium and vitamin E result in increased incidence of mastitis. Selenium deficiency is one of the numerous factors causing Retained placenta. The Retained placenta has adverse economic effects as it leads to develop uterine infections which increase the incidence of infertility. Blind staggers or alkali disease is the most common problem associated with selenium toxicity. Cobalt (Co) is necessary in ruminant feed for the production of vitamin B12. Cobalt may also be advantageous in ruminant feed as a source of refining the proficiency of fiber digestion by bacteria. Although cobalt requirements are less than 1 ppm in the feed, ruminal synthesis of B12 is radically augmented within hours of cobalt supplementation of a poor diet. Cobalt deficiency has disturbing properties on animal health. Its deficiency leads to anemia, fatty liver, increased mortality of offspring shortly after birth, increased vulnerability to infectious agents and infertility. Cobalt deficiency may directly affect the metabolism of rumen bacteria which in turn affect the digestion process. Feeding well-fortified trace mineralized salt comprising cobalt is the best source of insuring that animals get satisfactory cobalt nutrition. Cobalt supplementation above that required by the animal, increase the volatile fatty acid concentrations in the rumen fluid, leads to improve the rate of fiber digestion. Magnesium (Mg) is traditionally classified among the macro-mineral elements. Magnesium plays a role in maintaining constant physical chemical properties of cells, in ionized form, it regulates calcium and potassium cytosol flow, which is especially important in muscle and cardiac tissue integrity, transfer of nerve impulses and muscle contraction. The main concentration of magnesium in the body is in the skeleton, which contains 60-70% of the total. Magnesium works by modifying enzyme activity and by concentrating rumen fermentation on acetic and butyric acid, at the expense of propionic acid. Hypomagnesium, grass tetany, winter tetany, or infantile tetany is a metabolic condition found in dairy cows at the start of lactation, caused by a sudden fall in magnesium concentration in the cerebro-spinal fluid and in blood leads to a state of neuromuscular excitability with convulsive-type nervous signs. It is often accompanied by hypocalcaemia. Specific magnesium supplementation before and during risk periods can compensate for the fall in feed magnesium digestibility. In this review paper, an investigation has been recognized to inspect the effects of minerals supplement in single and/or joined form on animal health and their negative effects of deficiency in different species of animals.


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