Dr Aisha Abrar, Dr Hira Khalil, Dr Abdul Basit
Background: Aspergillus is a fungus that may exhibit a number of pulmonary symptoms depending on the patient's immune and physiological status. Although the incidence of pulmonary aspergillosis occurs primarily in immunocompromised patients, the incidence is also increasing in immunocompromised individuals, especially in developing countries. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the occurrence and predisposing factors of pulmonary aspergillosis along with species identification. Place and Duration: In the Tb and Chest Medicine Department of District Headquarter Hospital, Attock for one year duration from March 2019 to March 2020. Materials and methods: The study included one hundred and three patients admitted to the thoracic and tuberculosis department and the medicine department. Patients were personified based on clinical symptoms, physical examination, chest radiography, computed tomography, histopathological examination, bronchoscopy and fungal examination, including potassium hydroxide mount, sputum culture and bronchoalveolar lavage. Species identification was made on the basis of colony features, slide culture and blue mount with lactophenol cotton. Results: Of 103 patients (63 men and 40 women), Aspergillus species were isolated from 17 (16.5%) men and 07 (6.79%) women. Various factors predisposing to pulmonary aspergillosis have been identified, in which pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic smoking and environmental exposure to asbestos were at first places on the list. Many patients had many predisposing factors. Aspergillus species were isolated in 24 (23.3%) cases. Aspergillus fumigatus was the dominant isolated species in 13 (54.16%) cases, followed by Aspergillus flavus in 07 (29.16%), Aspergillus niger in 03 (12.5%) and Aspergillus terrus in 1 (4.16%) case. Conclusion: The incidence of pulmonary Aspergillosis has been found to be quite high in immunocompromised individuals and low in immunocompetent individuals. Appropriate and effective assessment of etiologic factors plays a key role in the management of such patients. Keywords: Aspergillus, Tuberculosis, Sputum, Immunocompromised.