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Mudasir Maqbool, Dr Muhammad Naveed Akmal, Dr Aimen Tahir


Antibiotics are a group of medicines used to treat infections caused by germs (bacteria and certain parasites). A parasite is a type of germ live in another living being (host). Antibiotics are sometimes called antibacterial or antimicrobials. Antibiotics are available in the form of parental, oral, topical (creams, ointments, or lotions) to treat certain infections. It is important to remember that antibiotics only work against infections that are caused by bacteria and certain parasites. Antibiotics are one of the most commonly prescribed groups of medications, especially in developing nations, owing to the vast number of infectious diseases prevalent in the community. Since the time of discovery of the phenomenal antimicrobial, penicillin, there has been a great rise in the number of antimicrobials in the market. Antibiotic resistance is increasing to dangerously high levels at national level as well at Global front. Novel resistance mechanisms are emerging and spreading globally, threatening our capability to treat common infectious diseases. Ampicillin, an extended spectrum penicillin, is effective against gram positive as well as gram negative microorganisms. Also, being acid resistant, it can be given orally. It reports good minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against most of medically important microorganisms like S.aureus: 0.6-1 mg/L, Escherichia coli: 4 mg/L, H. influenzae: 0.25 mg/L, Streptococcus pneumoniae: 0.03-0.06mg/L. It has been used in the treatment of enteric fever, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections. This paper briefly provides information about antimicrobial resistance and drug profile of ampicillin. Keywords: Antibiotic, Resistance, novel modalities, ampicillin.

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