Vyshnavi V Rao * and Shamsiya Rizwana
Hydroxychloroquine [HCQ] belongs to the group of antimalarial agents with immunosuppressive, anti-autophagy, anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatologic activities. In addition to reducing the manifestations of inflammatory disorders, Hydroxychloroquine is especially also associated with the prevention of disease and prevention of treatment-induced complications that include hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, liver function test elevation and thrombosis . Hydroxychloroquine has shown promising results In-Vitro against SARS-CoV-1 [SARS- related Corona Virus strain 1], that caused the 2002-2004 SARS [Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome] outbreak. Late 2019 and early 2020 has seen a rapid spread of the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that caused COVID 19 pandemic. The US-FDA [Food and Drug Administration] has approved Hydroxychloroquine as potential treatments to COVID 19 [or SARS-CoV-2] coronavirus. However Hydroxychloroquine is linked to several side effects like retinal toxicity, neuromyotoxicity, ocular toxicity and retinopathy. Uncertainty in the mode of action, specificity and risks of Hydroxychloroquine against coronavirus makes it extremely unclear whether it is a viable medication for treatment or not. Nevertheless, the drug is gaining notability like never before in the existing state of affairs. In this review, we discuss the current literature on the structural characteristics, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics data, benefits and novel applications of Hydroxychloroquine, its immunomodulatory mechanism with respect to each application and the potential side effects associated with it. The present scenario compels critical care physicians and researchers worldwide to undertake several studies emphasising the role of Hydroxychloroquine as a potential drug. KEYWORDS: Antiinflamatory, Antimalarial, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Quinine, Treatment.