Dr. Aieman Saeed, Dr. Sharjeel Khan Samejo, Dr. Hamza Naseer Meo
Crystal concretions in the kidneys are kidney stones. This is a prevailing health issue that is affecting about 12% of the total world’s population. This disease can lead to renal failure, thus it is life-threatening. Kidney stone has multifactorial etiology, as multiple reasons can contribute to their formation. The most common type of stone is calcium oxalate formed on the papillary surface of the renal at Randall’s plaque. The crystal formation mechanism is complex that results from various physicochemical events modulated by an imbalance among multiple factors that inhibit or promote urinary crystallization. Apoptosis of protein kinase pathways and cellular injury also promotes these events. At present, no 100% satisfactory drug is available that can prevent the kidney stone recurrence. Thus, research is of great importance to manage urolithiasis with the help of new drugs and to better understand the pathophysiology of kidney stone development. Therefore, this research paper aims at the provision of up to date information regarding kidney stone etiology, its pathogenesis, and various prevention approaches.