Dr Aniqa Khan,Dr Zill e Rehman, Dr Waheed Sardar
Diabetic nephropathy is a type of chronic kidney disease that adversely affects the functioning of kidneys like fluid and salt balance, blood pressure, and excretion. The body’s capacity of producing normal insulin levels in the blood is also affected. It is categorized into stages: microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. Patients in the upper normal range of albumin levels are prone to both these stages of albuminuria as they also had high blood pressure, while those in lower to the normal albumin range are not likely to fall under these categorize. The level of albumin, observed in samples collected in three to six months define either the patient has diabetic nephropathy or not. The morphological altered glomerular filtration rate and hyalinization of afferent and efferent arterioles of glomerulus also depict the presence of diabetic nephropathy. Dark urine, nausea, fatigue, vomiting, and swollen joints are some prominent symptoms of diabetic nephropathy which are not usually visible at the beginning of this disorder. Diabetes puts immense stress upon kidneys and as a result, the body starts to lose protein through urine and inappropriate blood filtration continues. In this article, a brief overview of diabetic nephropathy along with its causes and symptoms are touched to give a holistic view and throw some light upon the important features of this disease.