ResearcherID - CLICK HERE Scientific Journal Impact Factor (SJIF-2020) - CLICK HERE




Mohammed Basheer Albalbisi , Aseel Hummam Attar 2 , Fatimah Abdullah Salman Alrabeh , Fahad khalid ali alaugla , Saud Abdullah Alghamdi , Fadia Abdulelah AbuZaid, Mamdouh Mohammed Mahbub , Mohammed Mesfer Abdullah Alajma, Abdulkareem Khalid S Bagar , Ali Aziz Mohammed Al-Sayed


Context: Heart failure (HF) is defined as a clinical syndrome that is caused by mal-structural and malfunctional changes in the myocardium resulting in an impairment of ventricular filling or the ejection fraction. There are many causes of HF such as reduced ventricular function, ischemia related malfunction, and hemodynamic overload. HF is mostly clinically diagnosed and classified, but laboratory markers help in confirming the diagnosis. Methodology: We conducted this review using a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE, January 1985, through February 2017. The following search terms were used: heart failure, ventricular dysfunction, classification of heart failure, clinical evaluation, diagnosis of heart failure, management of heart failure Aim: In this review, we aim to study the classification, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of heart failure. We will also study the appropriate methods of diagnosis and management. Conclusion: Heart failure is a complicated disease and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing and developed countries. The pathophysiology behind it is various. A standardized medical therapy has been successful in the early stages of HF. The management is different according to the presented symptoms and the advanced stages of HF require frequent hospitalization due to the presence of severe HF and or associated co-morbid condition. The management plan differs whether the patient is in admission or in outpatient settings. Keywords: heart failure, cardiac emergencies, management of hear failure


  • Follows us on
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.