Dr. Muhammad Shair Ismail, Dr. Sehar Sajjad., Dr. Ifra Afzal
Objective: To determine the frequency of autoimmune thyroiditis in children with Celiac disease and the effect of gluten free diet on autoimmune thyroiditis. Methods: We enrolled 100 patients, age 1-12 years of either gender diagnosed as Celiac disease (CD) in this prospective observational study in the Department of Pediatric Medicine, from 1st January 2018 to 30th June 2019. Diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis was made if anti–thyroperoxidase >35 iu/ml or anti– thyroglobulin >20 iu/ml at diagnosis of CD and then at one year on gluten free diet (GFD) in all cases. Children with repeat anti-tTG levels > 10 times upper limit normal at 6-months after enrollment were labelled as non-compliant to GFD. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Mean age of the participants was 5.94±3.16 years and 53% were females. Fourteen cases of autoimmune thyroiditis were detected at enrollment and six (7%, n/N = 6/86) were later diagnosed on follow-up who were initially negative. Seven hypothyroid cases among the autoimmune thyroiditis were treated with thyroxine and became euthyroid on follow-up testing. Compliance to GFD was 52%. Autoimmune thyroiditis improved on gluten free diet in four cases (28.6%). Of the six euthyroid cases at diagnosis three cases became hypothyroid and all were non-compliant. Conclusion: Frequency of autoimmune thyroiditis was 20% over a follow-up period of one year. Good compliance with the GFD has some effect on improving autoimmune thyroiditis and maintaining euthyroid status of CD patients.