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Kiran Chaudhary, Mohammed Ali


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often manifests during childhood, and typically impacts children from the age of four to fifteen. There is a lack of optimum levels of catecholamine’s like dopamine and norepinephrine present. Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate and phenethylamine, modulate these catecholamine’s, which are the primary treatment option for ADHD in children. These drugs remain the treatment of choice, but their long-term effect and safety is still under scrutiny. Non-pharmaceutical treatment options for this complex disorder may be of benefit in this population, with fewer side effects, whose incidence is 8-12% of children worldwide. This preliminary review of the literature is guided by two questions: 1) How electroencephalogram-neurofeedback (EEG-NF) reduces inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in children diagnosed with ADHD and 2) what are some of the limitations of this treatment modality. Hypovolemia of PFC is detected in ADHD and it is associated with the symptoms of inattention. Several studies in this review have suggested that NF training produced microstructural changes in the gray and white matter of the cerebral cortex. Increases in alpha wave and reduction in beta wave brain function are often found on the electroencephalogram in ADHD. Electroencephalogram-neurofeedback (EEG-NF) provides a continuous feedback. The study participants showed improved attention, cognitive functions, reduced distractibility, and improvement in IQ. This treatment modality utilizes operant conditioning and trained children to gain control of their cortical functions. This paper explores the impact of NF on ADHD symptoms, it also provides a brief overview of neuroanatomy and neurotransmitters of this disorder, electroencephalogram, the even related potential, biomarkers of EEG, side effects of medical regimens, and limitations of NF. Keywords: EEG-neurofeedback, ADHD, QEEG, ERP, cortical regulation, brain wave pattern, psychostimulants, catecholamines te anal fissure underwent lateral internal sphincterotomy as compared to patients managed with GTN cream. Key words: Anal fissure, lateral inernal sphincterotomy, GTN. Surgical management.


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