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Gogaev O.K., Vaniev A. G., Tukfatulin, G.S., Godzhiev, R.S., Kadieva T.A., Karaeva Z.A., Tokhtieva E.A.


The main indicators of gas-energy exchange allow us to speak about the general laws of functional transformations in the pro-cess of growth, development of the organism and animals’ adaptation to certain environmental conditions. The experimental part of the study was carried out in the foothill zone of the North Caucasus. The heifers of Swiss and Kalmyk breeds were the object of the study. Their respiration rate was the lowest in winter and the highest in spring, regardless of the breed. This can be explained by the fact that in autumn the animals were before calving. The increased respiration and the decrease in its depth by 1,99 ml during summer were also due to that fact. The value of pulmonary ventilation in summer was 0,207 l / kg, approxi-mately at this level it remained in autumn (0,195 l), but it sharply decreased by 39,9% in winter, and till spring it increased by 9,4 %. The exchange of gas of Kalmyk breed heifers was almost the same in summer and autumn, but in winter it decreased, then in spring it increased again. Its highest level was reached in autumn, it was 0,208 liters, and the lowest level was in win-ter-0,158 liters. The reaction of Swiss and Kalmyk bred heifers on environmental changes was different. In summer there was an increase in gas exchange and heat production in animals of both groups. The changes in environmental conditions associat-ed with seasons have a significant impact on the body of animals and cause shifts in their gas exchange. Seasonal changes in the level of gas-energy exchange are related to different breeds of animals, at that time, the level of gas exchange was largely influenced by the productivity of animals and the nature of seasonal feeding. At the same time the animals of Kalmyk breed were less susceptible to stressful situations associated with the change of the season. Key words: gas-energy exchange, Swiss breed, Kalmyk breed, adaptation, respiratory rate, respiratory coefficient, heat pro-duction, ventilation.


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