Dr. Qummar Ali Raza, Dr. Sayed Moosa Kazim, Dr. Zenab Farooq
Objective: To study the demographic and clinical features, outcome, complications and treatment cost of tetanus patients admitted in Paediatirc Intensive Care Unit of Nishtar Hospital, Multan. Methods: It is a descriptive observational study conducted at Nishtar Hospital, Multan from July 2016 to June 2018. Patients of tetanus admitted in PICU during the study period were enrolled. Data was collected from the file records of patients and included the demographic profile, clinical presentation, grade of severity, length of stay, complications and outcome. It also included the cost of treatment. Descriptive statistics were applied to describe the results. Results: During the study period, 23 cases of tetanus were admitted in P.I.C.U. twelve were male and 11 female. Majority of cases (13) belonged to age group 2-6 years. Seventeen cases were unvaccinated and 6 had received only BCG & OPV. None was appropriately vaccinated for age. There were 9 cases of post injury tetanus, 6 of them were males, 5 cases of otogenic tetanus and 9 cases had no clinically identifiable portal of entry. Eleven cases belonged to grade III severity of Ablett classification and 6 had grade IV severity. Mortality in our case series was 26%. Autonomic instability was seen in 17 patients and all of them needed ionotropic support. The estimated cost of per day treatment of a tetanus patient with mechanical ventilation was approximatly 31, 979/Pak Rs and without mechanical ventilation was 20,000/Pak Rs. Conclusion: Tetanus is an entirely preventable disease with a high mortality. Treatment is very costly as compared to vaccination which is free of cost. Complete vaccination and proper wound care is the only option to reduce the ongoing burden of tetanus.