Dr Rizwan Rabbani, Dr Salman Nasir, Dr Sameen Nasir
Background: Leptin is polypeptide protein 16 kDa released from adipocytes, and plays a key role in energy expenditure which helps in the control of bodyweight. Leptin plays an important role in regulating appetite and metabolism whereas obesity promotes a number of cellular processes which lead to weakening of the leptin signaling processes and increases the chances of weight-gain induced by genetic and environmental factors. Normally, leptin reduces bodyweight, and increased blood leptin levels with obesity are an indication of leptin resistance. Decrease in appetite is indicated by reduced leptin levels. Objective: To correlate serum leptin levels in obese and non-obese type 2 diabetic patients and compare them with healthy individuals. Study Design: This is a case-control study, conducted in the Endocrinology Department of Services Hospital, Lahore, for six months, from November 2019 to April 2020. Methods: The study included type 2 diabetic patients and an equal number of healthy controls. Fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, serum leptin, and body mass index were assessed in obese and non-obese subjects. Relation between body mass index and serum leptin level was explored. Data was analyzed using SPSS 20. Results: Of the 96 subjects, 48(50%) were in each of the two groups. Among the cases, there were 23(48%) men and 25(52%) women with an overall mean age of 51.27±11.7 years. The control group had 28(58%) men and 20(42%) women with an overall mean age of 49.3±12.1 years. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in obese 9.42±1.87ng/ml and non-obese 7.21±3.78 ng/ml patients than the controls 5.38±2.20 ng/ml (p<0.05). Serum leptin concentration was significantly correlated with body mass index, fasting blood glucose and BMI, FBG and glycated haemoglobin (p<0.001 each). Conclusion: Increased levels of serum leptin could be used as a risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Keywords: Serum leptin, BMI, Diabetes mellitus.