Volume : 08, Issue : 11, November – 2021
27.INCIDENCE OF CONVENTIONAL RISK FACTORS AMONG PATIENTS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
Dr Abdur Rahman Abshar
Background: Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is potentially critical and is the most common cardiac emergency to occur in a hospital. Cardiovascular risk factors for major mortality and morbidity are increasing in Pakistan. Given the lower survival, ischemic heart disease represents an important public health problem.
Purpose and aim: The aim of the study is to determine the frequency of various conventional risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction and to guide our planning for primary and secondary prevention of this disease in our society.
Methodology: A total of 100 consecutive patients with MI aged 20 to 80 years were included in the study. A detailed history including admission symptoms was taken, and risk factors were evaluated with the help of history and laboratory examinations. The following common risk factors, namely gender, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, family history, and obesity were examined.
Results: Frequency risk factors were listed as male gender (74%), smoking (70%), hypertension (62%), diabetes mellitus (60%), hyperlipidemia (44%), family history (40%), and obesity. (14%). Of these risk factors, 48% of the patients had at least one major risk factor, 23% had two major risk factors, and 29% had three or more major risk factors.
Conclusion: Smoking, hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were the main modifiable risk factors requiring better control in our patients. Public awareness of risk factors is low. Therefore, there is an urgent need to raise awareness about preventive aspects and healthier lifestyles in our society.
Key words: ischemic heart disease, risk factors, morbidity, coronary artery disease.
Cite This Article:
Please cite this article in press Abdur Rahman Abshar et al, Incidence Of Conventional Risk Factors Among Patients With Myocardial Infarction., Indo Am. J. P. Sci, 2021; 08(11).
Number of Downloads : 10
1. Khot UN, Khot MB, Bajzer CT, Sapp SK, Ohman EM, Brener SJ, Ellis SG, Lincoff AM, Topol EJ. Prevalence of conventional risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. Jama. 2003 Aug 20;290(7):898-904.
2. Gikas A, Sotiropoulos A, Panagiotakos D, Pastromas V, Papazafiropoulou A, Pappas S. Prevalence trends for myocardial infarction and conventional risk factors among Greek adults (2002–06). QJM: An International Journal of Medicine. 2008 Sep 1;101(9):705-12.
3. Segev A, Ellis MH, Segev F, Friedman Z, Reshef T, Sparkes JD, Tetro J, Pauzner H, David D. High prevalence of thrombophilia among young patients with myocardial infarction and few conventional risk factors. International journal of cardiology. 2005 Feb 28;98(3):421-4.
4. Marrie RA, Garland A, Schaffer SA, Fransoo R, Leung S, Yogendran M, Kingwell E, Tremlett H. Traditional risk factors may not explain increased incidence of myocardial infarction in MS. Neurology. 2019 Apr 2;92(14):e1624-33.
5. Leifheit-Limson EC, Spertus JA, Reid KJ, Jones SB, Vaccarino V, Krumholz HM, Lichtman JH. Prevalence of traditional cardiac risk factors and secondary prevention among patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI): variation by age, sex, and race. Journal of women’s health. 2013 Aug 1;22(8):659-66.
6. González-Pacheco H, Vargas-Barrón J, Vallejo M, Piña-Reyna Y, Altamirano-Castillo A, Sánchez-Tapia P, Martínez-Sánchez C. Prevalence of conventional risk factors and lipid profiles in patients with acute coronary syndrome and significant coronary disease. Therapeutics and clinical risk management. 2014;10:815.
7. Rinkūnienė E, Petrulionienė Ž, Laucevičius A, Ringailaitė E, Laučytė A. Prevalence of conventional risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease. Medicina. 2009 Feb;45(2):140.
8. Hemang NS, Dutt J. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and its correlation with conventional risk factors in young patients with myocardial infarction.
9. Myerburg RJ, Interian Jr A, Mitrani RM, Kessler KM, Castellanos A. Frequency of sudden cardiac death and profiles of risk. The American journal of cardiology. 1997 Sep 11;80(5):10F-9F.
10. Iqbal UJ, Kaleem M, Iqbal N, Hanif MI, Hanif A. FREQUENCY OF CONVENTIONAL RISK FACTORS OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN GULAB DEVI CHEST HOSTPITAL. Biomedica. 2014 Sep 1;30(3).
11. Everson SA, Goldberg DE, Kaplan GA, Cohen RD, Pukkala E, Tuomilehto J, Salonen JT. Hopelessness and risk of mortality and incidence of myocardial infarction and cancer. Psychosomatic medicine. 1996 Mar 1;58(2):113-21.
12. Adam AM, Rehan A, Waseem N, Iqbal U, Saleem H, Ali MA, Shaikh AT, Godil A. Prevalence of conventional risk factors and evaluation of baseline indices among young and elderly patients with coronary artery disease. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2017 Jul;11(7):OC34.
13. Esteghamati A, Abbasi M, Nakhjavani M, Yousefizadeh A, Basa AP, Afshar H. Prevalence of diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors in an Iranian population with acute coronary syndrome. Cardiovascular Diabetology. 2006 Dec;5(1):1-6.
14. Longenecker JC, Coresh J, Powe NR, Levey AS, Fink NE, Martin A, Klag MJ. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in dialysis patients compared with the general population: the CHOICE Study. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2002 Jul 1;13(7):1918-27.
15. Parajuli M, Maskey A, Kohli SC, Shrestha UK. Gender Difference in Frequency of Conventional Risk Factors in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Admitted in Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. Nepal Journal of Medical Sciences. 2012;1(1):31-4.
16. Bessant R, Duncan R, Ambler G, Swanton J, Isenberg DA, Gordon C, Rahman A. Prevalence of conventional and lupus‐specific risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a case–control study. Arthritis Care & Research: Official Journal of the American College of Rheumatology. 2006 Dec 15;55(6):892-9.
17. Bhalli MA, Kayani AM, Samore NA. Frequency of risk factors in male patients with acute coronary syndrome. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2011 May 1;21(5):271-5.
18. Marmot MG, Syme SL, Kagan A, Kato H, Cohen JB, Belsky J. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii and California: prevalence of coronary and hypertensive heart disease and associated risk factors. American Journal of epidemiology. 1975 Dec 1;102(6):514-25.
19. Manzi S, Selzer F, Sutton‐Tyrrell K, Fitzgerald SG, Rairie JE, Tracy RP, Kuller LH. Prevalence and risk factors of carotid plaque in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis & Rheumatism: Official Journal of the American College of Rheumatology. 1999 Jan;42(1):51-60.