Volume : 09, Issue : 01, January – 2022



Authors :

Mrs. Jyotsnaa H Waggh, Miss. Sayali S. Erande

Abstract :

Antiviral are a class of drugs that are used to treat viral infections currently available antiviral infection. Currently available antiviral drugs target only main groups of viruses that are: herpes, hepatitis and influenza viruses most disease caused by viruses tend to end without treatment and do not require antiviral therapy. Acyclovir, Brivudine, Docosanol, Trifluridine, valacyclovir etc. are the examples of common antiviral drugs.
Due to viruses a wide range of human diseases causes, ranging from acute self-resolving conditions to acute fatal diseases. The propensity for chronic conditions can also increase after the long arise of primary infection which may lead to the development of cancer. Our understanding of recent advances for viral pathogenesis, to improve vaccination strategies and developing the newer along with more effective treatment for patient in all over the world due to virology and pathology. The review has focus on interface in between virology and pathology and to hold the aspects of clinical pathology of viral disease and the mechanisms of disease underlying. The articles based on prominent diseases caused by viruses such as Ebola virus, Marburg virus, coronaviruses (SARS and MERS), Nipah virus and noroviruses are followed by reviews of enteroviruses, HIV infection, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV). The issue have been concluded with a series of articles by reviewing the relationship between viruses and cancer, including the role played by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of lymphoma and carcinoma; which reveal how human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are involved in the development of skin cancer as well as the involvement of hepatitis B virus infection in hepatocellular carcinoma; and the mechanisms with Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) leads to Kaposi’s sarcoma. Hopefully this collection of articles will help the scientists and clinicians at a time while there is a renaissance in the appreciation of the power of pathology as virologists dissect the processes of disease.
Keywords: CMV; EBV; HPV; KSHV; MERS; Marburg virus; RSV; SARS; VZV; coronavirus; enterovirus; measles.

Cite This Article:

Please cite this article in press Jyotsnaa H Waggh et al, Antiviral Agents And Their Effect On Special Population Of Covid 19 Patients., Indo Am. J. P. Sci, 2022; 09(01).

Number of Downloads : 10


1. Mortimer PP. Orphan viruses, orphan diseases: still the raw material for virus discovery. Rev Med Virol 2013; 23: 337–339. – PMC – PubMed
2. Morse SS, Mazet JA, Woolhouse M, et al. Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis. Lancet 2012; 380: 1956–1965. – PMC – PubMed
3. Brasil Martines R, Ng DL, Greer PW, et al. Tissue and cellular tropism, pathology and pathogenesis of Ebola and Marburg viruses. J Pathol 2015; 235: 153–174. – PubMed
4. van den Brand JMA, Smits SL, Haagmans BL. Pathogenesis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Pathol 2015; 235: 175–184. – PMC – PubMed
5. Gralinski LE, Baric RS. Molecular pathology of emerging coronavirus infections. J Pathol 2015; 235: 185–195. – PMC – PubMed
6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7396737/
7. Elfiky A. Anti-HCV, nucleotide inhibitors, repurposing against COVID-19. Life Sci. 2020;248:117477. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117477 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
8. Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, et al. First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(10):929–936. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001191 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
9. Grein J, Ohmagari N, Shin D, et al. Compassionate use of remdesivir for patients with severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(24):2327–2336. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2007016 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
10. Beigel JH, Tomashek KM, Dodd LE, et al. Remdesivir for the treatment of Covid-19 – preliminary report. N Engl J Med. Epub 2020 May 22. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
11. Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: FDA issues emergency use authorization for potential COVID-19 treatment; 2020. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-issues-emergency-use-authorization-potential-covid-19-treatment. Accessed May26, 2020.
12. Favié LM, Murk JL, Meijer A, Nijstad AL, van Maarseveen EM, Sikma MA. Pharmacokinetics of favipiravir during continuous venovenous haemofiltration in a critically ill patient with influenza. Antivir Ther. 2018;23(5):457–461. doi:10.3851/IMP3210 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
13. MacLaren G, Fisher D, Brodie D. Preparing for the most critically Ill Patients with COVID-19: the potential role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. JAMA. Epub 2020 Feb 19 [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
14. Cheng V, Abdul-Aziz MH, Roberts JA, Shekar K. Overcoming barriers to optimal drug dosing during ECMO in critically ill adult patients. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2019;15(2):103–112. doi:10.1080/17425255.2019.1563596 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
15. Ghazi SM, Ogungbenro K, Kosmidis C, et al. The effect of veno-venous ECMO on the pharmacokinetics of ritonavir, darunavir, tenofovir and lamivudine. J Crit Care. 2017;40:113–118. doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2017.03.010 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
16. Wildschut ED, Ahsman MJ, Allegaert K, Mathot RA, Tibboel D. Determinants of drug absorption in different ECMO circuits. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36(12):2109–2116. doi:10.1007/s00134-010-2041-z [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
17. World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019. Accessed April20, 2020.
18. Vabret N, Britton GJ, Gruber C, et al. Immunology of COVID-19: current state of the science. Immunity. 2020;6(52):910–941. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2020.05.002 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Coronavirus (COVID-19); 2020. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html. Accessed April13, 2020.
20. Savarino A, Di Trani L, Donatelli I, Cauda R, Cassone A. New insights into the antiviral effects of chloroquine. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006;6(2):67–69. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70361-9 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
21. Vincent MJ, Bergeron E, Benjannet S, et al. Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread. Virol J. 2005;2:69. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-2-69 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
22. Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res. 2020;30(3):269–271. doi:10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
23. Devaux CA, Rolain JM, Colson P, Raoult D. New insights on the antiviral effects of chloroquine against coronavirus: what to expect for COVID-19? Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;55:105938. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105938 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
24. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Available from: http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx. Accessed May30, 2020 Chinese.
25. Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Biosci Trends. 2020;14(1):72–73. doi:10.5582/bst.2020.01047 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
26. Coppock K FDA announces two drugs given ‘compassionate use’ status in treating COVID-19; 2020. Available from: https://www.pharmacytimes.com/news/fda-announces-two-drugs-approved-for-compassionate-use-in-treating-covid-19. Accessed March19, 2020.
27. Chinese National Health Committee. [Diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (trial version 7)]; 2020. Available from: http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/zhengcwj/202003/46c9294a7dfe4cef80dc7f5912eb1989.shtml. Accessed
28. Wang Z, Yang B, Li Q, Wen L, Zhang R. Clinical features of 69 cases with coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. Clin Infect Dis. Epub 2020 Mar 16 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
29. Xu K, Cai H, Shen Y, et al. [Management of corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19): the Zhejiang experience]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2020;49(2):147–157. Chinese. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
30. Deng L, Li C, Zeng Q, et al. Arbidol combined with LPV/r versus LPV/r alone against Corona Virus Disease 2019: A retrospective cohort study. J Infect. Epub 2020 Mar 11. [Google Scholar]
31. Zhu Z, Lu Z, Xu T, et al. Arbidol monotherapy is superior to lopinavir/ritonavir in treating COVID-19. J Infect. 2020;81(1):e21–e23. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.060 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
32. Zhang JN, Wang WJ, Peng B, et al. Potential of arbidol for post-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19 transmission-a preliminary report of a retrospective cohort study. Curr Med Sci. 2020;1–6. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
33. Stockman LJ, Bellamy R, Garner P. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects. PLoS Med. 2006;3(9):e343. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030343 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
34. Kain T, Lindsay PJ, Adhikari N, Arabi YM, Van Kerkhove MD, Fowler RA. Pharmacologic treatments and supportive care for middle east respiratory syndrome. Emerg Infect Dis.